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Encounter 2001

Encounter 2001


Prof. Alexander L. Zaitsev
Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics
Russian Academy of Science

Dr. Sergej P. Ignatov
Russian Institute of Space Device Engineering
Russian Space Agency

Broadcast for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence from Evpatoria Deep Space Center

Report on Cosmic Call 1999


1. Introduction
2. Background
3. Methodology
4. Hardware Upgrade
5. Software Upgrades
6. Cosmic Call Sessions
7. Future Prospects
8. Supplement: Cosmic Call Logbook


This Report outlines methodology, hard- and softwares, which were developed to transmit first Interstellar messages from Evpatoria Deep Space Center (EDSC), and describes Cosmic Call Sessions, which were fulfiled at EDSC on May 24 and June 30 - July 1, 1999.


The Encounter 2001 Mission (http://encounter2001.com) consists of two elements: The Cosmic Call and The Millennial Voyage. The first one represents the series of interstellar transmissions to the stars, which have the same cpectral type as Sun and probably, the own planetary system. The choice of this stars is mainly base on the SETI Institute target list (Yvan Dutil, e-mail communication on 5 Jun 99):

TABLE 1. Target Stars

Target Number 1 2 3 4 5
Star Name HD178428 HD186408 HD190067 HD190360 HD190406
Visual Magnitude6.08 5.99 7.15 5.73 5.08
Spectral Type G5V G2V G8V G6IV+ G1V
Light Years 68.3 70.5 63.0 51.8 57.6
RA, J2000 19h07m57.32s 19h41m48.95s 20h02m34.15s 20h03m37.41s 20h04m06.23s
PMRA, arcsec/yr 0.06561 - 0.14775 - 0.18607 0.68332 - 0.39407
LY =D7 PMRA 4.48s - 10.42s - 11.72s 35.40s - 22.70s
RA + LY =D7 PMRA 19h08m01.80s 19h41m38.53s 20h02m22.43s 20h04m12.81s 20h03m43.53s
Dec, J2000 +16d51m12.24s +50d31m30.21s +15d35m35.51s +29d53m48.51s +17d04m12.64s
PMDec, arcsec/yr - 0.30446 - 0.15885 - 0.58207 - 0.52406 - 0.40642
LY =D7 PMDec - 20.79 - 11.20s - 36.67 - 27.15s - 23.41
Dec + LY =D7 PMDec +16d50m51.44s +50d31m19.01s +15d34m58.84s +29d53m21.36s +17d03m49.23s

The lines [RA + LY =D7 PMRA] and [Dec + LY =D7 PMDec] denote the actual values of Right Ascension (RA) and Declination (Dec), which are account the distance LY and proper motion PM, and which were used for computations of elevation and zenith angle of given star during its tracking by Evpatorian antenna.

According to Specification, for Cosmic Call we have used the 70-m fully steerable paraboloid anntenna and power transmitter, which are usually using for planetary and asteroid radar research:

    Central Frequency - 5010.024 MHz
    Antenna's Diameter - 70 m
    Effective Apperture - 2500 m2
    Continuous Power - 150 kW
    Left Circular Polarization.


Each Cosmic Call consists of two parts. Part I is the selected Earth's knowledge for Extraterrestrials, and Part II contains the names and personal messages of Encounter 2001 participants. Regarding Part I, we have a total of 4 messages, to include in it:
1. Dutil Message,
2. Braastad Message,
3. Arecibo Message, and
4. Encounter 2001 Staff Message.
For explanation of message's content please visit: www.encounter2001.com. Each above messages are the binary ["0" & "1"] streams of information, separated to each other by 5 second pauses. As a result, we have the ternary situation: ["0", "1", and "pause"], so need to use the ternary modulation to transmit the Cosmic Call. We have used the frequency modulation for this purpose, as more suitable for reliability of power klystron transmitter and for more antijamming, than amplitude one.

Hardware Upgrade

The EDSC hardware was upgraded to introduce the frequency modulation mode. The coherent frequency synthesizer Ch 6-36, controlled by personal computer via custom-bult interface, was used. Also, the special device to exercise of power klystrons, was developed.

Software Upgrade

The software for gathering all messages and creating the Cosmic Call stream, was written on C language. Here is the screan's view of control personal computer monitor during "on-line" generation of Cosmic Call:
   Start of Session

    Dutil Message
    Braastad Message
    Arecibo Message
    Encounter 2001 Staff Message.

             Part II

     End of Session

The Part I was transmitted three times at a rate 100 bits per second, and the Part II - only once at a rate 2000 bits per second.

Cosmic Call Sessions

The first Cosmic Call was transmitted on May 24, 1999 to the target number 2 - star HD 186408. Three other transmissions were made during the night June 30 - July 1. Table 2 conteins an information about all four Sessions.

TABLE 2. Cosmic Call Sessions

Session 1 2 3 4
Target Star HD 186408 HD 178428 HD 190406 HD 190360
Date 24 May 1999 30 June 1999 30 June - 1 July 1 July 1999
UT of Start 16:20:00 16:45:00 21:10:00 01:22:00
Transmitted Power, kW 148 152 152 152
UT of Finish 20:15:03 20:40:15 01:05:02 05:17:01

Transmission Rates: 100 Hz for Part I and 2000 Hz for Part II. Frequency Deviation: +/- 24 kHz ("pause" =3D 5010024 kHz, "0"=3D 5010000 kHz, "1" =3D 5010048 kHz) both for Part I and II.

Future Prospects

The most important problem, which occures during long (few hours) transmission is a short life of power klystrons. At present we have only one reserve klystron, unfortunately, so plan to develop special device to regenerate the cathodes of defect klystrons. Also, hard- and softwares need in some modifications to increase theirs flexibility and reliability before forthcoming 2000 & 2001 Cosmic Calls.