Prof. Alexander L. Zaitsev
Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics
Russian Academy of Science
Dr. Sergej P. Ignatov
Russian Institute of Space Device Engineering
Russian Space Agency
Broadcast for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence
from Evpatoria Deep Space Center
Report on Cosmic Call 1999
4. Hardware Upgrade
5. Software Upgrades
6. Cosmic Call Sessions
7. Future Prospects
8. Supplement: Cosmic Call Logbook
This Report outlines methodology, hard- and softwares, which were developed
to transmit first Interstellar messages from Evpatoria Deep Space Center
(EDSC), and describes Cosmic Call Sessions, which were fulfiled at EDSC on
May 24 and June 30 - July 1, 1999.
The Encounter 2001 Mission (http://encounter2001.com) consists of two
elements: The Cosmic Call and The Millennial Voyage. The first one
represents the series of interstellar transmissions to the stars, which
have the same cpectral type as Sun and probably, the own planetary system.
The choice of this stars is mainly base on the SETI Institute target list
(Yvan Dutil, e-mail communication on 5 Jun 99):
TABLE 1. Target Stars
|Target Number ||1 ||2 ||3 ||4 ||5
|Star Name ||HD178428 ||HD186408 ||HD190067 ||HD190360 ||HD190406
|Visual Magnitude||6.08 ||5.99 ||7.15 ||5.73 ||5.08
|Spectral Type ||G5V ||G2V ||G8V ||G6IV+ ||G1V
|Light Years ||68.3 ||70.5 ||63.0 ||51.8 ||57.6
|RA, J2000 ||19h07m57.32s ||19h41m48.95s ||20h02m34.15s ||20h03m37.41s ||20h04m06.23s
|PMRA, arcsec/yr ||0.06561 ||- 0.14775 ||- 0.18607 ||0.68332 ||- 0.39407
|LY =D7 PMRA ||4.48s ||- 10.42s ||- 11.72s ||35.40s ||- 22.70s
|RA + LY =D7 PMRA ||19h08m01.80s ||19h41m38.53s ||20h02m22.43s ||20h04m12.81s ||20h03m43.53s
|Dec, J2000 ||+16d51m12.24s ||+50d31m30.21s ||+15d35m35.51s ||+29d53m48.51s ||+17d04m12.64s
|PMDec, arcsec/yr ||- 0.30446 ||- 0.15885 ||- 0.58207 ||- 0.52406 ||- 0.40642
|LY =D7 PMDec ||- 20.79 ||- 11.20s ||- 36.67 ||- 27.15s ||- 23.41
|Dec + LY =D7 PMDec ||+16d50m51.44s ||+50d31m19.01s ||+15d34m58.84s ||+29d53m21.36s ||+17d03m49.23s
The lines [RA + LY =D7 PMRA] and [Dec + LY =D7 PMDec] denote the actual values
of Right Ascension (RA) and Declination (Dec), which are account the
distance LY and proper motion PM, and which were used for computations of
elevation and zenith angle of given star during its tracking by Evpatorian
According to Specification, for Cosmic Call we have used the 70-m fully
steerable paraboloid anntenna and power transmitter, which are usually
using for planetary and asteroid radar research:
Central Frequency - 5010.024 MHz
Antenna's Diameter - 70 m
Effective Apperture - 2500 m2
Continuous Power - 150 kW
Left Circular Polarization.
Each Cosmic Call consists of two parts. Part I is the selected Earth's
knowledge for Extraterrestrials, and Part II contains the names and
personal messages of Encounter 2001 participants. Regarding Part I, we have
a total of 4 messages, to include in it:
1. Dutil Message,
2. Braastad Message,
3. Arecibo Message, and
4. Encounter 2001 Staff Message.
For explanation of message's content please visit: www.encounter2001.com.
Each above messages are the binary ["0" & "1"] streams of information,
separated to each other by 5 second pauses. As a result, we have the
ternary situation: ["0", "1", and "pause"], so need to use the ternary
modulation to transmit the Cosmic Call. We have used the frequency
modulation for this purpose, as more suitable for reliability of power
klystron transmitter and for more antijamming, than amplitude one.
The EDSC hardware was upgraded to introduce the frequency modulation mode.
The coherent frequency synthesizer Ch 6-36, controlled by personal computer
via custom-bult interface, was used.
Also, the special device to exercise of power klystrons, was developed.
The software for gathering all messages and creating the Cosmic Call
stream, was written on C language. Here is the screan's view of control
personal computer monitor during "on-line" generation of Cosmic Call:
Start of Session
Encounter 2001 Staff Message.
End of Session
The Part I was transmitted three times at a rate 100 bits per second, and
the Part II - only once at a rate 2000 bits per second.
Cosmic Call Sessions
The first Cosmic Call was transmitted on May 24, 1999 to the target number
2 - star HD 186408. Three other transmissions were made during the night
June 30 - July 1. Table 2 conteins an information about all four Sessions.
TABLE 2. Cosmic Call Sessions
|Session ||1 ||2 ||3 ||4
|Target Star ||HD 186408 ||HD 178428 ||HD 190406 ||HD 190360
|Date ||24 May 1999 ||30 June 1999 ||30 June - 1 July ||1 July 1999
|UT of Start ||16:20:00 ||16:45:00 ||21:10:00 ||01:22:00
|Transmitted Power, kW ||148 ||152 ||152 ||152
|UT of Finish ||20:15:03 ||20:40:15 ||01:05:02 ||05:17:01
Transmission Rates: 100 Hz for Part I and 2000 Hz for Part II. Frequency
Deviation: +/- 24 kHz ("pause" =3D 5010024 kHz, "0"=3D 5010000 kHz, "1" =3D
5010048 kHz) both for Part I and II.
The most important problem, which occures during long (few hours)
transmission is a short life of power klystrons. At present we have only
one reserve klystron, unfortunately, so plan to develop special device to
regenerate the cathodes of defect klystrons. Also, hard- and softwares need
in some modifications to increase theirs flexibility and reliability before
forthcoming 2000 & 2001 Cosmic Calls.